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Random sample

In research and statistical studies, a random sample is one where the researcher ensures that each member of that population has an equal chance of being selected.



A statistical variation measure based on the distance between the highest and lowest score in a series of scores.


Rank order

A rating method where the performance of a group, process or product is arranged in a particular order, such as highest to lowest.


Rate of exchange

The rate at which the unit of currency of one country may be exchanged for another countrys equivalent unit of currency.


Rate of return

The return rate earned on an investment on an annual basis, expressed as a percentage.


Ratio analysis

Use of ratios to measure a companys financial performance by conveying the relationships between the organizations accounting numbers and their trends over time. Used to establish values and evaluate risks.


Real-time quotes

A standard Web-based feature that provides up-to-the-second information on prices of the most recent sales and purchases of certain stock options.



A considerable decline in the general economy that extends over a period of time.



A relationship between states or other taxing jurisdictions whereby privileges granted by one are returned by the other under a reciprocal agreement.



The process of confirming that checkbook balances correspond to bank statements.


Reduction in force (RIF)

An involuntary separation of an employee or groups of employees due to economic pressures, lack of work, organizational changes or other reasons of business necessity that require a reduction in staff.


Redundancy payment

Refers to an amount paid to an employee who has been laid off, typically calculated in relation to length of employment.



The redesigning of business and work processes, policies or organizational structure.


Regression analysis

A statistical measure used to discover relationships between variables such as performance ratings and promotions.



A detailed set of orders that clarify and implement a particular section of law.



Insurance policies purchased by an insurer to protect against exceptionally large risks or other related risks an insurer faces.



A measure of the ability of a test or other appraisal instrument to evaluate on a consistent basis that which is being measured.


Representative sample

A method of dividing a population into strata and then taking a random sampling from each population.


Request for price (RFP)

A request made by a private company or government agency to potential vendors or contractors regarding a price quote for specified products or services.


Request for proposal (RFP)

A document an organization sends to a vendor inviting the vendor to submit a bid for a product or service.



A written request to purchase a good or service.


Restricted stock

An executive incentive pay method whereby executives are granted shares with some type of sales restriction. Restricted stock must be traded in compliance with special SEC regulations, and shares are forfeited when an executive terminates employment.


Restrictive covenant

A contract clause requiring executives or other highly skilled employees to refrain from seeking and obtaining employment with competitor organizations in a specific geographical region and for a specified period of time.



Changing an organizational structure in order to make it more efficient and cost effective.


Retained earnings

The amount of after-tax profit that is not paid out as dividends and is retained and reinvested in the business or used to pay off financial obligations.



The act of reducing expenditures in order to attain financial stability.


Return on assets (RA)

An internal measure of a companys profitability, equal to a fiscal years profits divided by its total assets, expressed as a percentage (net profit divided by total assets).


Return on equity (ROE)

A post-tax measure used by economists to assess a businesss quality and strength.


Return on investment (ROI)

A ratio of the benefit or profit derived from a specific investment compared to the cost of the investment itself.


Return on net assets

The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of profit gains or asset increases realized by a company during a financial year.



The amount of income generated by a product or service over a period of time.


Revenue budget

The estimated dollar value based on a projection of future sales of products or services.


Reverse stock split

The process of going private with a small company by removing it from the market.


Reverse takeover

A takeover in which a public company acquires another company by distributing a large number of shares to shareholders of the target company.



An approach to reducing staff whereby jobs are prioritized in order to identify and eliminate unnecessary work. This method uses a selection criteria based on individual jobs rather than people in order to avoid possibly laying off the wrong employees.


Risk analysis

The process of trying to determine in advance any potential negative occurrences and resulting impact on business operations that such occurrences would constitute.


Risk avoidance

Strategies and tactics designed and implemented to circumvent or eliminate potential financial and other risks.


Risk management

The use of insurance and other strategies in an effort to minimize an organizations exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.


Root cause analysis

A procedure for ascertaining and assessing the causes of operational problems to assist in determining causes and implementing prevention strategies.


Rural sourcing

An outsourcing method that is based on transferring jobs away from higher-cost urban areas to lower-cost rural areas.

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