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A specification of what is to be accomplished, the time frame in which it is to be accomplished and by whom.


Off-balance sheet financing

A method of raising money that does not appear on a companys balance sheet.


Offering price

The price at which the first investors are able to purchase shares.



The practice of relocating business processes such as production/manufacturing to a lower-cost international location.



A market where there are only a few large suppliers.



The process of enabling an employee to become familiar with a new location, job or company.


Open-ended fund

A fund with no lock-in period allowing investors the ability to freely buy and sell shares at any time they choose.


Operating budget

A detailed projection of all projected income and expenses during a specified future period.


Operating cash flow

The total of company net profit, depreciation, account payable and accrual changes, less inventory and accounts receivable changes.


Operating costs

The day-to-day expenses incurred in running a business (also called operating expenses). These costs typically include the costs of such items as personnel, materials, overhead, depreciation and interest.


Operating income

The pre-tax, pre-interest profit derived from company operations.


Opportunity costs

The amount that a particular product or resource could have earned in its next best use. For example, if an asset is used for one purpose, the opportunity cost is the value of the next best purpose the asset could have been used for.



A contract for the right to purchase or sell an asset, subject to certain terms and conditions.


Ordinal data

Data or numbers that can be placed in rank order. The main difference between ordinal data and nominal data is that ordinal data contain both an equal-to and a greater-than relationship, whereas the nominal data contain only an equal-to relationship.


Organization chart

A graphic representation outlining how authority and responsibility are distributed within an organization.


Organization culture

An organizations attitude and values regarding itself, employees, customers and the general public. It encompasses the manner in which things are done within the organization based on defined policies and practices.


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

An international agency comprised of industrialized market-economy countries of the world to address the impact of globalization through changes in environmental, social and economic policy.


Organizational design

The process of establishing and arranging the elements of an organizations structure.


Organizational planning

The process of transforming an organizations goals, objectives, philosophy and mission into practices and policies.


Organizational structure

The intentional arrangement of positions in an organization to accomplish the goals of the company. Typically global structures are functional, geographic, product, hybrid and matrix.


Organizational transformation

Organization-wide changes, such as restructuring operations, introducing new technologies, processes, services or products, implementing new programs, re-engineering, etc.


Outcomes assessment

A strategy used to evaluate and measure the results of an instructional method or program.



A contractual agreement between an employer and an external third-party provider whereby the employer transfers responsibility and management for certain HR, benefits or training-related functions or services to the external provider.


Outstanding share

Stock currently held by investors, including restricted shares owned by the companys officers and those held by public investors.


Overall rate of return

The ratio of money gained or lost on an investment in relation to the amount of money invested.



The costs (excluding labor costs) associated with operating a business, including items such as the cost of rent, utilities, taxes, etc.

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