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Naked option

    An opportunity to purchase stock offered by a seller who has ownership of the underlying asset.


    The worlds largest electronic stock market with approximately 3,200 companies, it lists more companies and, on average, trades more shares per day than any other U.S. market.


Needs analysis

    A method of analyzing how employee skill deficit can be addressed through current or future training and professional development programs, how to determine the types of training/development programs required and how to prioritize training/development.


Negative amortization

    A gradual loan increase that occurs when the monthly payment is inadequate to cover the interest due and resulting in a continuous increase on the balance owed.


Negative equity

    A situation that occurs when the market value of property becomes less than the amount of the original loan taken out on the property.



    The process of bargaining among parties to reach a mutually agreeable solution.


Net book value

    The difference between the net value of company assets less depreciation and amortization (also referred to as net worth)


Net operating income

    A companys operating income after deducting all applicable operating expenses but prior to interest or tax deductions.


Net profit

    Generally referred to as the bottom line, net profit is calculated by subtracting total expenses from total revenue (also referred to as net earnings).



    Refers to Internet use rules of conduct, involving respecting others privacy and not doing anything online that is offensive, annoying or frustrating to other people.


Net worth

    A companys total assets minus liabilities.


Next-in, first-out (NIFO)

    An inventory valuation method that values inventory at projected levels of cost that reflect replacement values over the near term.


New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

    The leading corporation, operated by a board of directors, responsible for listing securities, setting policies and supervising the stock exchange and its member activities.


No-load fund

    A mutual fund that does not charge commissions.


Nominal data

    In statistics, nominal data is a form of categorical data that classifies items into categories or groups, placing no real significance on the order of the groups.


Nominal group technique

    A consensus planning tool used to identify the strengths of an organization, department or division, whereby participants are brought together to discuss important issues, problems and solutions.


Nonconforming loan

    A loan that does not meet the standards of the bank or other financial lending institute.


Non-interest bearing bond

A bond that does not earn periodic interest payments, sells at a discount and matures at face value.



    An association formed for educational, fraternal, religious or social purposes and comprised of members who abide by the bylaws of the association.


Nonverbal communication

    The non-spoken aspects of communication that include such culturally sensitive factors as body language, eye contact and conversational distance.


Norm-referenced measurement

    Measurement that provides data on how well individuals do in relation to others in the group.


Normal distribution

    The curve representing the normal distribution of a rating or test score (see also bell-shaped curve).


Normative forecasting

    A method of projecting future needs in order to determine what developments will be required to meet those needs.


North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

An agreement, reached by the United States, Canada and Mexico, that instituted a schedule for the phasing out of tariffs and eliminated a variety of fees and other hindrances to encourage free trade between the three North American countries.


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