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North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

An agreement reached by the United States, Canada and Mexico that instituted a schedule for the phasing out of tariffs and eliminated a variety of fees and other hindrances to encourage free trade between the three North American countries.

   

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) of 1947

The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), passed in 1935, provides that all employees have the right to form, join and assist labor organizations and to bargain collectively with their employers.

   

National origin

The country--including those that no longer exist--of one's birth or of one's ancestors' birth. "National origin" and "ethnicity" often are used interchangeably, although "ethnic group" can refer to religion or color, as well as country of one's ancestry.

   

Naturalization

The process by which an alien is made a citizen of the United States of America and relinquishes citizenship to any other country.

   

Needs analysis

A method of analyzing how employee skill deficits can be addressed through current or future training and professional development programs, as well as determining the types of training/development programs required and how to prioritize training/development.

   

Negligent hiring

A claim made against an employer based on the premise of an employer’s obligation to not hire an applicant the employer knew or should have known was unsuitable and likely to behave inappropriately toward other employees.

   

Negligent referral

Negligent referral is defined as the failure of an employer to disclose complete and factual information about former or current employee to another employer.

   

Negligent retention

The act of failing to take appropriate disciplinary action (i.e., termination) against an employee the employer knew or should have known was unsuitable.

   

Nepotism

Favoritism shown to relatives by individuals in a position of authority, such as managers or supervisors.

   

Netiquette

Refers to Internet use rules of conduct, involving respecting others' privacy and not doing anything online that is offensive, annoying or frustrating to other people.

   

Newborns’ and Mothers’ Health Protection Act (NMHPA) of 1996

Requires a minimum length of hospital confinement in conjunction with childbirth. This requirement applies to health plans and health insurance companies that provide hospital stays for childbirth in their policies. The law provides that coverage for a hospital stay following a normal delivery may not be limited to less than 48 hours for both the mother and newborn, and for a cesarean section not less than 96 hours.

   

Nominal group technique

A consensus planning tool used to identify the strengths of an organization, department or division, whereby participants are brought together to discuss important issues, problems and solutions.

   

Noncompete agreement

A contract restricting an employee from obtaining employment with a competitor within a specified industry, distance and/or time frame.

   

Noncompliance

Failure to follow equal employment opportunity or affirmative action guidelines and the regulations applicable to them.

   

Nondisclosure agreement

A contract restricting an employee from disclosing confidential or proprietary information.

   

Nondiscrimination

The practice of not discriminating against members of disadvantaged or protected groups in hiring practices, policies, benefits or conditions of employment.

   

Nonexempt employee

An employee who does not meet any one of the Fair Labor Standards Act exemption tests and is paid on an hourly basis and covered by wage and hour laws regarding hours worked, overtime pay, etc.

   

Nontraditional employment

Used to define occupations or specific fields where women typically comprise less than 25 percent of the workforce.

   

Normative forecasting

A method of projecting future needs in order to determine what developments will be required to meet those needs.

   

Notice

In wrongful discharge cases, this doctrine is used to determine whether or not an employer gave an employee adequate advanced notice of the potential consequences if a specific behavior or conduct was not improved upon.

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